SPECIFICATION FOR WHEAT ATTA
This Indian Standard (Second Revision) was adopted
by the Indian Standards Institution on 2 April 1968,
after the draft fried by the Processed Cereals and
Pulses Sectional Committee had been approved by
the Agricultural and Food Products Division Council.
Wheat ATTA, popularly known in English as wheat
meal as distinct from MAIDA (set IS: 1009-1968),
contains bran as well, though the larger particles
of bran are preferably sifted out. Practically all
the great bulk of ATTA consumed in rural areas in
India is produced by grinding wheat in stone mills
worked either by hand or by animals. In urban areas,
it is produced largely in mechanically operated
stone mills and in roller flourmills. This standard
is, therefore, intended to cover all types of wheat
A TTA whether produced in stone mills or in roller
0.3 The Sectional Committee responsible for the
preparation of this standard took into consideration
the available data on the composition of wheat ATTA
manufactured from different varieties of wheat produced
in various parts of lndia and imported from abroad.
In addition to this due consideration has also been
given to the relevant rules prescribed by the Government
of India under the Prevention of Food Adulteration
Act, 1954. This standard is, however, subject to
the restrictions imposed under that Act, wherever
0.4 The Indian Standard specification for ATTA was
first published in 1957. In 1965 it was revised
to include two grades of ATTA besides incorporating
modifications in the requirement for crude fibre
content. Since then, the position in the supply
of wheat has changed considerably and compulsory
washing of wheat before milling has been introduced
in the country. The limit for moisture content of
ATTA has therefore been raised and the requirement
for acidity has been deleted. The limits of acid
insoluble ash and alcoholic acidity have also been
revised. Besides the method of determination of
gluten content (see Appendix D) has been revised.
The reference to 'fortification ' has been deleted
as the committee felt that fortified ATTA is not
being manufactured in the country at present.
0.5 This standard is one of a series of Indian Standard
specifications for wheat products. Other specifications
published so far in the series are. IS. 1009-1968
MAIDA (revised) and IS: 1010-1968 SUJl or RAVA (semolina)
0.6 This standard contains clauses (see 4.1.1 and
4.1.2) which call for an agreement between the purchaser
and the vendor.
0.7 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular
requirement of the standard is complied with, the
final value, observed or calculated, expressing
the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded
off in accordance with IS: 2-1960. The number of
significant places retained in the rounded of value
should be the same as that of the specified value
in this standard.
Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised).
1.1 This standard prescribes the requirements and
the methods of test for wheat ATTA.
2.1 The material shall be of two grades, namely,
Low Gluten (LG) and High Gluten (HG).
3.1 Description - The material shall be obtained
by milling sound and clean wheat. It shall be in
the form of powder having a characteristic taste
and flavour. It shall be free from rancidity, insect,
rodent or fungus infestation. It shall also be free
from fermented musty or other objectionable odour.
It shall not have adulterants and other extraneous
NOTE - The appearance, taste and odour shall he
determined by organoleptic test.
3.2 Microscopic Appearance - When the material is
subjected to microscopic examination, the starch
granules shall have the characteristic appearance
as shown in the photomicrograph reproduced in Fig.
1, revealing concentric rings and more small granules
than large ones.
The material shall be manufactured in premises using
equipment maintained under hygienic conditions (see
IS: 2491 - 1963.
PACKING AND MARKING
Code for sanitary conditions for food processing
units. (Since revised).
3.4 The material shall also comply with the requirements
given in Table 1.
Packing - the packages may preferably be of 1 kg,
2 kgs, 10 kgs, 20 kgs, 40 kgs, 65 kgs, 75 kgs or
90 kgs as desired by the purchaser.
4.1.1 For packages above 65 kg, unless otherwise
agreed to between the purchaser and the vendor the
material for packing shall be single, sound A-twill
or B-twill jute bags or DW-flour bags conforming
to IS: 1964, IS: 2566-1965 and IS: 3984-1967 respectively.
Specification for A-twill jute bags (revised)
Specification for B-twill jute bags (revised).
Specification for DW-flour bags
4.1.2 The bags used for smaller packs may be polyethylene
bags or polyethylene lined jute bags or any other
suitable material as agreed to between the purchaser
and the vendor.
4.1.3 The mouth of the bag shall be either machine
stitched or hand stitched. If it is hand stitched,
the mouth shall be rolled user and then stitched.
The stitches shall be in two cross-rows with at
least 14 stitches .in each row for jute bags of
65 kg and above.
4.2 Marking -Each bag shall be suitably marked so
as to give the following information.
and grade of the material
Name and address of the manufacturer
and code number
4.2.1 All markings shall be applied on the bags
in such a manner that the dye or ink does not penetrate
into the material.
1 REQUIREMENTS FOR WHEAT ATTA (Clause 3.4)
of test (Ref to Appendix)
percent by weight, Max
ash (on dry basis), percent by weight, Max
insoluble ash (on dry basis), percent by weight,
(on dry basis), percent by weight, Min
fibre (on dry basis), percent by weight, Max
acidity (as H2S04), with 90 percent alcohol,
percent by weight, Max
5.1 The method of drawing representative samples
of the material and the criteria for conformity
shall be as prescribed in the Indian Standard methods
of sampling for processed cereals and pulses.
Note - This standard is under preparation. Until
it is published the method of sampling and the criteria
for conformity shall be as agreed to between the
purchaser and the vendor.
6.1 Tests shall be carried out as prescribed under
3.1, 3.2 and in the appropriate Appendices specified
in column 5 of Table 1.
6.2 Quality pf Reagents - Unless specified otherwise,
pure chemicals shall be employed in tests and distilled
water (see IS: 1070-1960) shall be used where the
use of water as a reagent is intended.
Note -'Pure chemicals' shall mean chemicals that
do not contain impurities, which affect the results
Specification for water, distilled quality (revised)
A Table 1, Item (i)
DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE
A-1.1 Weigh accurately about 5 g of the material
in a dish made of porcelain, silica or platinum,
previously dried in an electric oven and weighed.
Place the dish in an electric oven maintained at
105 d C + / - 1 d C, for five hours. Cool the dish
in a desiccator and weigh with the lid on. Repeat
the process of heating, cooling and weighing at
half-hour intervals until the loss in weight between
two successive weighings is less than one milligram.
Record the lowest mass obtained.
Note - Preserve the dish containing this dried material
for the determination of total ash (see B-1.1) and
crude fibre (see F-2.1).
A-2.1 Moisture, percent by mass = 100 (W1 - W2)
W1 - W
W1 = mass in g of the dish with the material before
W2 = mass in g of the dish with the material after
W = mass in g of the empty dish.
B Table 1, Item (ii)
DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ASH
B-1.1 Ignite the dried material in the dish (A-1.1)
with the flame of a suitable burner for about one
hour. Complete the ignition by keeping in a muffle
furnace at 550 to 600 d C until gray ash results.
Cool in a desiccator and weigh. Repeat the process
of igniting, cooling and weighing at half-hour intervals
until the difference in mass between two successive
weighings is less than one milligram. Note the lowest
Note - Preserve the dish containing this ash for
the determination of acid insoluble ash (see C-2.1).
B-2.1 Total ash (on dry basis), percent by mass =
100 (W2 - W)
W1 - W
W2 = mass in g of the dish with the ash
W = mass in g of the empty dish
W1 = mass in g. of the dish with the dried material
taken for the test
C Table 1, Item (iii)
DETERMlNATION OF ACID INSOLUBLE ASH
C 1.1 Dilute Hydrochloric Acid -approximately 5
N, prepared from concentrated hydrochloric acid
(see IS: 265-1962).
Specification for hydrochloric acid (revised)
D Table 1, Item (iv)
C-2.1 To the ash contained in the dish (B-1.1) add
25 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid, cover with a
watch glass and heat on a water-bath for 10 minutes.
Allow to cool and filter the contents of the dish
through a Whatman filter paper No. 42 or its equivalent.
Wash the filter paper with water until the washings
are free from the acid and return it to the dish.
Keep it in an electric air-oven maintained at 135
d C + / - 2 d C for about 3 hours. Ignite in a muffle
furnace at 550 to 600 d C for one hour. Cool the
dish in a desiccator and weigh. Repeat the process
of igniting in the muffle furnace, cooling and weighing
at half-hour intervals until the difference in mass
between two successive weighings is less than one
milligram. Note the lowest mass C - 3 CALCULATION
C-3.1 Acid insoluble ash (on dry basis), percent
by mass = 100 (W2 - W)
W1 - W
W2 = mass in g of the dish with the acid insoluble
W = mass in g of the empty dish
W1 = mass in g of the dish with the dried material
DETERMINATION OF GLUTEN
D-1.1 Weigh accurately into a dish about 25 g of
the material. Add about 15 mi of water to the material
and make it into dough, taking care to see that
all the material is taken into the dough. Keep the
dough gently in a beaker filled with water and let
it stand for one hour. Remove the dough and place
it in a piece of bolting silk cloth with an aperture
of 0.16 mm Size (No. 10 XXX) and wash it with a
gentle Stream of tap water till water passing through
the silk does not turn blue when a drop of iodine
solution is added to it. Spread the silk tight on
a porcelain plate for facilitating scraping. Transfer
the residue from the silk by M~ of a spatula to
a tared porcelain dish. Spread the wet gluten into
a thin layer and cut into small pieces. Transfer
any residue sticking to the spatula into the porcelain
dish. Place the porcelain dish in an air-oven maintained
at 133 + / - 2 d C. Dry for two hours. Cool in a
desiccator and weigh.
D-2.1 Gluten (on dry basis), percent mass = 10000
(W2 - W1)
W (100 - M)
W2 = mass in g of porcelain dish with dry gluten
W1 = mass in g of the empty porcelain dish
W = mass in g of the material taken for the test
M = moisture, percent by mass
E Table 1, Item (v)
DETERMINATION OF CRUDE FIBRE
E - 1.1 Dilute Sulphuric Acid - 1.25 percent (W
/ V), accurately prepared.
E-1.2 Sodium Hydroxide Solution - 1.25 percent (W
/ V), accurately prepared.
E-1.3 Ethyl Alcohol - 95 percent by volume.
E-2.1 Weigh accurately about 2.5 g of the material
preserved under A-1.1 and transfer it to a liter
flask. Take 200 ml dilute sulphuric acid in a beaker
and bring to the boil. Transfer the whole of the
boiling acid to the flask containing the fat-free
material and immediately connect the flask with
a water-cooled reflux condenser and heat, so that
the contents of the flask begin to boil within-one
minute. Rotate the flask frequently, taking care
to keep the material from remaining on the sides
of the flask and out of contact with the acid. Continue
boiling for -exactly 30 minutes. Remove the flask
and filter through fine linen (about 18 threads
to the centimeter) held in a funnel, and wash with
boiling water until the washings are no longer acid
to litmus. Bring to the boil some quantity of sodium
hydroxide solution under a reflux condenser. Wash
the residue on the linen into the flask with 200
mi of the boiling sodium hydroxide solution. Immediately
connect the flask with the reflux condenser and
boil for exactly 30 minutes. Remove the flask and
immediately filter through the filtering cloth.
Thoroughly wash the residue with boiling water and
transfer to a Gooch crucible prepared with a thin
but compact layer of ignited asbestos. Wash the
residue thoroughly first with hot water and then
with about 15 ml of ethyl alcohol, 95 percent by
volume Dry the Gooch crucible and contents at 105
+ / - 2 d C in an air-oven to constant weight. Cool
and weigh. Incinerate the contents of the Gooch
crucible in an electric muffle furnace at 600 +
/ - 20 d C until all the carbonaceous matter is
burnt. Cool the Gooch crucible containing the ash
in a desiccator and weigh.
- 3 CALCULATION
E-3.1 Crude fibre (on dry basis), percent by mass
= 100 (W1 - W2)
W1 = mass in g of Gooch crucible and contents before
W2 = mass in g of Gooch crucible containing asbestos
W = mass in g of the dried material taken for the
F Table 1, Item (vi)
DETERMINATION OF ALCOHOLIC ACIDITY
F-1.1 Neutral Ethyl Alcohol - 90 percent by volume.
F-1.2 Standard Sodium Hydroxide Solution - approximately
F-1.3 Phenolphthalein Indicator Solution -Dissolve
0. 1 g of phenolphthalein in 100 ml of 60 percent
(V / V) rectified spirit.
F-2.1 Weigh 5 g of sample into a conical stopper
flask and add 50 ml of neutral ethyl alcohol. Stopper,
shake and allow to stand for 24 hours, with occasional
shaking. Filter the alcoholic extract through a
dry filter paper. Titrate 10 ml of the combined
alcoholic extract against standard sodium hydroxide
solution using phenolphthalein as indicator. Calculate
the percentage of alcoholic acidity as sulphuric
F-3.1 Alcoholic acidity (as H2SO4), with 90 percent
alcohol percent by mass = 24.52 AN
A = volume in ml of standard sodium hydroxide solution
used in titration
N = normality of standard sodium hydroxide solution
W - mass in g of the material taken for the test.
G Table 1, Item (vii)
DETERMINATION OF GRANULARITY
G-1.1 Transfer about 10 g of the material to 600-micron
IS Sieve and sieve for 2 minutes. Brush the upper
surface of the sieve and sieve again for one minute.
Note - In case 600-rnicron 18 Sieve (conforming
to IS: 460-1962) is not available, BS Test Sieve
25, ASTM Sieve 30 or Tyler test sieve 28, which
have their aperture& within the limits specified
for this IS Sieve, may be used.
Specification for test sieves (revised)
G-1.2 The material shall be considered to satisfy
the test if the residue left on the sieve does not
exceed 0.2 percent by weight.